Where Is Monte Casino?

Where Is Monte Casino
Monte Cassino – Wikipedia Historically significant hill in Lazio, Italy For information about the World War II battle, see, Monte Cassino Abbey Abbey of Monte Cassino Location within Italy Monastery informationEstablishedAD 529PeopleFounder(s)SiteLocation, : Public accessyes Monte Cassino (today usually spelled Montecassino ) is a rocky hill about 130 kilometres (80 mi) southeast of, in the, Italy, 2 kilometres ( 1 + 1 ⁄ 4 mi) west of and at an elevation of 520 m (1,710 ft).

Site of the Roman town of, it is widely known for its, the first house of the, having been established by himself around 529. It was for the community of Monte Cassino that the was composed. The first on Monte Cassino was sacked by the invading around 570 and abandoned. Of the first monastery almost nothing is known.

The second monastery was established by around 718, at the suggestion of Pope and with the support of the Lombard Duke, It was directly subject to the pope and many monasteries in Italy were under its authority. In 883 the monastery was sacked by and abandoned again.

  • The community of monks resided first at and then from 914 at before the monastery was rebuilt in 949.
  • During the period of exile, the were introduced into the community.
  • The 11th and 12th centuries were the abbey’s golden age.
  • It acquired a large secular territory around Monte Cassino, the so-called (“Land of Saint Benedict”), which it heavily fortified with,

It maintained good relations with the, even receiving patronage from, It encouraged fine art and craftsmanship by employing Byzantine and even Arab artisans. In 1057, Pope recognised the abbot of Monte Cassino as having precedence over all other abbots.

  1. Many monks rose to become bishops and cardinals, and three popes were drawn from the abbey: (1057–58), (1086–87) and (1118–19).
  2. During this period was written by two of its own, Cardinal and (who also compiled the ).
  3. By the 13th century, the monastery’s decline had set in.
  4. In 1239, the Emperor garrisoned troops in it during his war with the Papacy.

In 1322, Pope elevated the abbey into a bishopric but this was suppressed in 1367. The buildings were destroyed by an earthquake in 1349, and in 1369 Pope demanded a contribution from all Benedictine monasteries to fund the rebuilding. In 1454 the abbey was placed and in 1504 was made subject to the in Padua.

In 1799, Monte Cassino was sacked again by French troops during the, The abbey was dissolved by the Italian government in 1866. The building became a national monument with the monks as custodians of its treasures. In 1944 during it was the site of the and the building was destroyed by Allied bombing.

It was rebuilt after the war. After the reforms of the the monastery was one of the few remaining within the, On 23 October 2014, Pope applied the norms of the Ecclesia Catholica of (1976) to the abbey, removing from its jurisdiction all 53 parishes and reducing its spiritual jurisdiction to the abbey itself – while retaining its status as a territorial abbey.

What is Monte Cassino famous for?

Monte Cassino Monastery Emerges From the Ashes of WWII By: Jerry Finzi, Monte Cassino, in the province of Lazio, is located 81 miles South of Rome within the ancient town of Casinum, but it is best known for its historic Benedictine Abbey that was a focal point for one the most bloody WWII battles. It was St.

Benedict of Nursia who established the first Benedictine monastery around 529. After months of battle and tremendous a loss of life in 1944, the Abbey suffered severe damage as a result of bombardment by the Allied Forces. After decades of extensive restoration, this architectural wonder and historic landmark once again attracts tourists and pilgrims from all over the world.

The site has been visited many times by Popes and other senior clergy, including Pope Benedict XVI in May 2009.

This modern rebuilding was not the only time Monte Cassino needed to be reconstructed. In 884 the Saracens sacked and then burned it down, and the Abbot Bertharius was killed during the attack. The monastery was subsequently rebuilt and reached the apex of its fame in the 11th century under the Abbot Desiderius (Abbot 1058–1087), who later became Pope Victor III.

  • St. Benedict founded a hospital that is considered today to have been the first in Europe of the new era.
  • Benedictine monks took care of the sick and wounded there, according to Benedict’s Rule.
  • Benedict founded twelve communities for monks at nearby Subiaco and hospitals were founded as adjuncts to the monasteries to provide charity.

Soon many monasteries were founded throughout Europe, and everywhere there were hospitals like those in Monte Cassino. By the 10 and 11th centuries Monte Cassino became the most famous cultural, educational, and medical center of Europe with a library in medicine and other sciences.

  • Many physicians came here for medical and academic knowledge.
  • The site was also sacked by Napoleon’s troops in 1799.
  • After the dissolution of the Italian monasteries in 1866, Monte Cassino became a national monument.
  • The WWII Destruction Curiously, during the Battle of Monte Cassino in the Italian Campaign of World War II, the abbey itself was not captured or used by the German troops as part of their fortifications.

It was Albert Kesselring, the German commander, who wanted to prevent the historical site from becoming a victim of war. But the abbey fell directly on the Gustav Line, which stretched from the Tyrrhenian to the Adriatic coast in the east, a crucial boundary.

Monte Cassino itself overlooked a main highway on the path to Rome. On Feb.15, 1944 the abbey was almost completely destroyed in a series of heavy American-led air raids, an order given by the Commander-in-Chief of Allied Armies in Italy, General Sir Harold Alexander of the British army. The order was based on erroneous reports from troops on the ground that Germans were occupying the monastery.

After the abbey was destroyed, it was confirmed that the only people killed were 230 Italian civilians seeking refuge there. It was only until after the bombing that its ruins became occupied by a German paratrooper division, because of its excellent vantage point.

  1. The Abbey was rebuilt after the war; Pope Paul VI reconsecrated it in 1964.
  2. What to See at Montecassino Abbey Today Three war cemeteries were built: the “Cassino War Cemetery”, housing the Commonwealth victims, the Polish Cemetery and the Germanic Cemetery.
  3. The basilica, richly decorated in stucco and mosaics, enshrines the relics of St.

Benedict and his sister, St. Scholastica, which survived the bombings. The abbey museum displays medieval art and artifacts from the monastery and explains the history of monasticism. Amid cries of a worldwide shortage (don’t worry, Italy assures us it’s not going to happen), travel Writer Paul Abercombie gives us a peak into summer’s favorite wine. Italian travel blogger Francesca Montillo happened upon Pasticceria Papucci, an irresistible pastry shop.

What city is Monte Cassino in?

Monte Cassino is a monastery in Lazio, Italy, 130 km southeast of Rome. It is a rocky hill overlooking the town of Cassino. St. Benedict (see Subiaco) established his first monastery here.

Why was Monte Cassino destroyed?

The abbey of Monte Cassino was founded in the 6th century by St. Benedict. During the Second World War it formed a key part of the German Gustav Line. On 15 February 1944 the abbey was bombed by the Allies who wrongly believed that it was being used as a German observation post.

The abbey of Monte Cassino is one of the two largest monasteries in Italy. The abbey was founded by Saint Benedict in the 6th century. The abbey made up one section of the 161 km long German Gustav Line, intended to block the Allied advance into Italy. Between 17 January and 18 May 1944, Monte Cassino was the scene of fierce fighting.

Lying in a protected historic zone, the abbey itself had been left unoccupied by the Germans. Unfortunately, the Allied commanders believed that the abbey was being used as an artillery observation point by the German forces. In spite of a lack of clear evidence, the monastery was marked for destruction.

On 15 February American bombers dropped their bombs on the abbey, reducing the entire top of Monte Cassino to a smoking mass of rubble. The destruction of the abbey was one of the greatest military blunders of the Second World War.230 Italian civilians that were seeking refuge in the monastery were killed and with the building now destroyed German paratroopers occupied the ruins, which provided them with excellent defensive cover.

Fortunately, the destruction was not complete. At the beginning of the battle German officers had transferred some 1,400 precious manuscripts and other items from the abbey to the Vatican saving them from destruction. After the war the abbey was rebuilt exactly as it was.

Is Cassino Italy worth visiting?

Cassino is a city in Lazio, Italy. It has many popular attractions, including Cassino War Cemetery, Museo Archeologico, making it well worth a visit. Cassino is a city in Lazio, Italy. It has many popular attractions, including Cassino War Cemetery, Museo Archeologico, making it well worth a visit.

Can you visit Monte Cassino?

Monte Cassino Battlefield Tours – There are a number of battlefield tours operating at Monte Cassino. You can book a private tour, day trip and battlefield trail tour online with one of the many operators. Check reviews on Trip Advisor before booking.

How many US soldiers died at Monte Cassino?

Main attack: II Corps in the centre, 20 January – Further information: A German tank crew attempts to restore their ‘s mobility after battle damage inflicted during the fighting The central thrust by the U.S.36th Division, under Major General, commenced three hours after sunset on 20 January.

The lack of time to prepare meant that the approach to the river was still hazardous due to uncleared mines and booby traps and the highly technical business of an opposed river crossing lacked the necessary planning and rehearsal. Although a battalion of the was able to get across the Gari on the south side of San Angelo and two companies of the on the north side, they were isolated for most of the time and at no time was Allied armour able to get across the river, leaving them highly vulnerable to counter-attacking tanks and self-propelled guns of ‘s,

The southern group was forced back across the river by mid-morning of 21 January. Keyes pressed Walker to renew the attack immediately. Once again, the two regiments attacked but with no more success against the well dug-in 15th Panzergrenadier Division: the 143rd Infantry Regiment got the equivalent of two battalions across, but, once again, there was no armoured support, and they were devastated when daylight came the next day.

The 141st Infantry Regiment also crossed in two battalion strength and, despite the lack of armoured support, managed to advance 1 kilometre (0.62 mi). However, with the coming of daylight, they too were cut down and by the evening of 22 January, the 141st Infantry Regiment had virtually ceased to exist; only 40 men made it back to the Allied lines.

described the intense German resistance: and drumfire methodically searched both, while opened on every sound, inched forward, feeling for trip wires and listening to German gun crews reload, to stand or even to kneel was to die, On average, soldiers wounded on the Rapido received “definitive treatment” nine hours and forty-one minutes after they were hit, a medical study later found,” The assault had been a costly failure, with the 36th Division losing 2,100 men killed, wounded and missing in 48 hours.

See also:  Which Casino Games Are Beatable?

What does Cassino mean in Italian?

Cassino (countable and uncountable, plural cassinos) Italian card game, see casino. (countable) Any of certain cards with special meanings in this game. (obsolete) A small house in Italy, a secondary home.

Where is Monte Cassino Girls High?

Monte Cassino Girls High School is a Catholic boarding-school 7km south-east of Macheke in the Mashonaland East province of Zimbabwe. Unlike the monastery in Rome, Italy, the school was built between two mountain ranges with its entrance coming in from the west side after crossing the Mucheke River.

Who destroyed Monte Casino?

Skip to Main Content of WWII – A stalemate on the Gustav Line in January 1944 brought about one of the more controversial Allied decisions of Italian campaign. January 15, 2021 Top Image: US servicemen walking amidst the ruins of Monte Cassino Abbey destroyed by Allied bombers. From the Collection at The National WWII Museum, 2010.324.234. Close to the hearts of many Italians, Monte Cassino, a Catholic monastery situated high on a rocky hill above the town of Cassino, was a symbol of peace and magnificence for hundreds of years.

However, in 1944 this religious beacon transformed into a looming reminder of Allied attrition, stagnancy, and the costliness of war. Benedict of Nursia established the very first monastery of his new order on this promontory in 529 AD. Even before Benedict, the location possessed tremendous historic importance.

In Benedict’s time, the road leading to the monastery was already more than 10 centuries old and was the location of an ancient Roman temple of Apollo. As monasticism spread throughout Europe, more Benedictine monasteries were founded on the same strict standards as Monte Cassino.

Inside the Abbey, monks painstakingly worked to preserve both contemporary and ancient texts, ensuring important documents and manuscripts were not lost to the ravages of time. The structure itself had been rebuilt many times due to natural disasters and sieges, but remained a center of historic scholarship.

The complex that stood above Cassino during World War II was constructed primarily in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Many of the manuscripts preserved within its walls were evacuated to Rome before the fighting raged around the site, however, this did not spare the Abbey itself from ultimate destruction.

As the Allies moved northward up the boot of Italy, invasion forces stalled on either side of the Gustav Line. With the failed amphibious landing at Anzio and brutal fighting at the Battle of the Rapido River, the Italian campaign arrived at a stalemate in January 1944. Four attempts were made to climb the mountain and take the shrine, and each failure led to a tremendous decline in morale.

Fifth Army Commander Mark Clark recalled that the battle of Cassino was, “the most grueling, the most harrowing, and in one aspect the most tragic, of any phase of the war in Italy.” This never-ending battle was one of the places where the all-Nisei 100th Infantry Battalion earned their nickname “Purple Heart Battalion.” Allied Forces assumed that the Germans were using Monte Cassino as a fortified position and observation post.

Piles of rubble surrounding the bombed out Abbey of Monte Cassino. Official caption on front: “The ruined Abbey of Monte Cassino after German surrender. US AAF Photo 232-6. From the Collection of The National WWII Museum, 2013.495.1681. Large cloud of smoke forming above multiple explosions from a US Army artillery bombardment; the Abbey of Monte Cassino is hidden behind the cloud. Official caption on front: “Blasting Nazis in Benedictine monastery at Cassino, 2-15-44. US Army Photo 177-13.” Cassino, Italy.15 February 1944. From the Collection of The National WWII Museum, 2013.495.1389. View looking up at the destroyed Monte Cassino Abbey. Official caption on front: Official caption on front: “MM-5-44-5369.” Official caption on reverse: “Signal Corps photo-20-May-1944 (Italy) Fallen Fortresses! Pointed toward its objective rests an Allied tank-disabled. Italian refugees walk along a roadway. Official caption on front: “MM-5-44-303”; Official Official caption on reverse: “Sig. Corps Radio Photo-2-7-44 / Italy! Refugees on a mountain road in the Vallerotunda area, near Cassino, fleeing their town enveloped in battle, seeking safety behind the front.” Vallerotonda, Italy.7 February 1944. From the Collection of The National WWII Museum, 2002.337.080.

As B-17s, B-25s, and B-26s soared over the sacred site on February 15, 1944, bombs rained down on much of the structure, reducing it to rubble. Even though German forces were camped on the mountain below, none were harmed during the bombardment. The two monks also survived unscathed, but an estimated 115 refugees taking shelter perished during the attack.

In David Hapgood and David Richardson’s book on Monte Cassino, they illustrate the scene as the monks emerged from their underground shelter, “The cloisters and their colonnades were all smashed. Where monumental stairs had led up to the basilica, they saw only a jumble of fallen rocks. The statue of Saint Benedict still stood in the cloister, but it had been decapitated.” The bombing decision came only months after Eisenhower’s Protection of Cultural Property Order, signed in December 1943.

Eisenhower details in the order, “If we have to choose between destroying a famous building and sacrificing our own men, then our men’s lives count infinitely more and the buildings must go. But the choice is not always so clear-cut as that. Nothing can stand against the argument of military necessity. Eisenhower’s Protection of Cultural Monuments Order, December 29, 1943, File: CAD 000.4 (3-25-43) (1), Sec.2, Security Classified General Correspondence, 1943-July 1949, General Records, Civil Affairs Division, Records of the War Department General and Special Staffs, RG 165.

Courtesy of The National Archives. The total ruin of Monte Cassino evoked mixed emotions on both sides and remains one of the most debated decisions of the war itself. Americans with loved ones and friends involved in the conflict were angry that their family members might be risking their lives to save a building.

Preceding the bombing, soldiers and spectators camped out for an optimal view of the destruction. When the initial bombs hit the Abbey, cheers emanated from the troops and reporters below. Many American newspapers published the falsehood that the monastery was inhabited by German troops, capitalizing on the headline that the Nazis violated the religious institution to use it as a safe haven.

Instead, the bombing of Monte Cassino became fodder for the German propaganda machine to smear the United States as enemies of ancient and religious traditions. In the end, the destruction of the Abbey proved to be incredibly detrimental to the Allies. In the coming months, the German forces hid in the rubble, occupied, and fortified the site.

Subsequent Allied assaults up the mountain achieved little despite heavy casualties. Polish troops finally captured Monte Cassino on May 18, 1944, five months into the bloody campaign and four months after the monastery was leveled.

How many Poles died at Monte Cassino?

Monte Cassino Polish war cemetery

This article needs additional citations for, Please help by, Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Find sources: – · · · · ( May 2022 ) ( )

Cemetery in Monte Cassino Monte Cassino Polish war cemetery Polish cemetery, as seen from Monte Cassino monastery Location of cemetery at Monte Cassino DetailsEstablished1944Location Country TypePolish soldiers No. of graves1,072 The Polish war cemetery at holds the graves of 1,072 Poles who died storming the bombed-out abbey atop the mountain in May 1944, during the,

The cemetery is maintained by the Council for the Protection of Memorial Sites of Struggle and Martyrdom. The religious affiliations of the deceased are indicated by three types of headstone: Christian crosses for and and headstones bearing the, The cemetery also holds the grave of General, who had commanded the Polish forces that captured Monte Cassino.

Anders died in London in 1970 and his ashes were interred in the cemetery. The cemetery itself can be clearly viewed from the Abbey, which lies just a few hundred meters away. The cemetery is the closest of all allied cemeteries, symbolizing the importance of the Polish fighters during the battle.

Who bombed Monte Cassino?

On the 15 th of February 1944, Allied planes bombed the abbey at Monte Cassino as part of an extended campaign against the Axis forces. St. Benedict of Nursia established his first monastery, the source of the Benedictine Order, here around 529. Over four months, the Battle of Monte Cassino would inflict some 200,000 causalities and rank as one of the most horrific battles of World War II.

This excerpt from Peter Caddick-Adams’s Monte Cassino: Ten Armies in Hell, recounts the bombing. On the afternoon of 14 February, Allied artillery shells scattered leaflets containing a printed warning in Italian and English of the abbey’s impending destruction. These were produced by the same US Fifth Army propaganda unit that normally peddled surrender leaflets and devised psychological warfare messages.

The monks negotiated a safe passage through the German lines for 16 February — too late, as it turned out. American Harold Bond, of the 36th Texan Division, remembered the texture of the ‘honey-coloured Travertine stone’ of the abbey that fine Tuesday morning, and how ‘the Germans seemed to sense that something important was about to happen for they were strangely quiet’.

Journalist Christopher Buckley wrote of ‘the cold blue on that late winter morning’ as formations of Flying Fortresses ‘flew in perfect formation with that arrogant dignity which distinguishes bomber aircraft as they set out upon a sortie’. John Buckeridge of 1/Royal Sussex, up on Snakeshead, recalled his surprise as the air filled with the drone of engines and waves of silver bombers, the sun glinting off their bellies, hove into view.

His surprise turned to concern when he saw their bomb doors open — as far as his battalion was concerned the raid was not due for at least another day. Brigadier Lovett of 7th Indian Brigade was furious at the lack of warning: ‘I was called on the blower and told that the bombers would be over in fifteen minutes even as I spoke the roar drowned my voice as the first shower of eggs came down.’ At the HQ of the 4/16th Punjabis, the adjutant wrote: ‘We went to the door of the command post and gazed up There we saw the white trails of many high-level bombers.

  1. Our first thought was that they were the enemy.
  2. Then somebody said, “Flying Fortresses.” There followed the whistle, swish and blast as the first flights struck at the monastery.’ The first formation released their cargo over the abbey.
  3. We could see them fall, looking at this distance like little black stones, and then the ground all around us shook with gigantic shocks as they exploded,’ wrote Harold Bond.
See also:  Jelaskan Apa Yang Dimaksud Slot Ekspansi?

‘Where the abbey had been there was only a huge cloud of smoke and dust which concealed the entire hilltop.’ The aircraft which committed the deed came from the massive resources of the US Fifteenth and Twelfth Air Forces (3,876 planes, including transports and those of the RAF in theatre), whose heavy and medium bombardment wings were based predominantly on two dozen temporary airstrips around Foggia in southern Italy (by comparison, a Luftwaffe return of aircraft numbers in Italy on 31 January revealed 474 fighters, bombers and reconnaissance aircraft in theatre, of which 224 were serviceable).

  • Less than an hour’s flying time from Cassino, the Foggia airfields were primitive, mostly grass affairs, covered with Pierced Steel Planking runways, with all offices, accommodation and other facilities under canvas, or quickly constructed out of wood.
  • In mid-winter the buildings and tents were wet and freezing, and often the runways were swamped with oceans of mud which inhibited flying.

Among the personnel stationed there was Joseph Heller, whose famous novel Catch-22 was based on the surreal no-win-situation chaos of Heller’s 488th Bombardment Squadron, 340th Bomb Group, Twelfth Air Force, with whom he flew sixty combat missions as a bombardier (bomb-aimer) in B-25 Mitchells.

  • After the first wave of aircraft struck Cassino monastery, a Sikh company of 4/16th Punjabis fell back, understandably, and a German wireless message was heard to announce: ‘Indian troops with turbans are retiring’.
  • Bond and his friends were astonished when, ‘now and again, between the waves of bombers, a wind would blow the smoke away, and to our surprise we saw the gigantic walls of the abbey still stood’.

Captain Rupert Clarke, Alexander’s ADC, was watching with his boss. ‘Alex and I were lying out on the ground about 3,000 yards from Cassino. As I watched the bombers, I saw bomb doors open and bombs began to fall well short of the target.’ Back at the 4/16th Punjabis, ‘almost before the ground ceased to shake the telephones were ringing.

One of our companies was within 300 yards of the target and the others within 800 yards; all had received a plastering and were asking questions with some asperity.’ Later, when a formation of B-25 medium bombers passed over, Buckley noticed, ‘a bright flame, such as a giant might have produced by striking titanic matches on the mountain-side, spurted swiftly upwards at half a dozen points.

Then a pillar of smoke 500 feet high broke upwards into the blue. For nearly five minutes it hung around the building, thinning gradually upwards.’ Nila Kantan of the Royal Indian Army Service Corps was no longer driving trucks, as no vehicles could get up to the 4th Indian Division’s positions overlooking the abbey, so he found himself portering instead.

‘On our shoulders we carried all the things up the hill; the gradient was one in three, and we had to go almost on all fours. I was watching from our hill as all the bombers went in and unloaded their bombs; soon after, our guns blasted the hill, and ruined the monastery.’ For Harold Bond, the end was the strangest, ‘then nothing happened.

The smoke and dust slowly drifted away, showing the crumbled masonry with fragments of walls still standing, and men in their foxholes talked with each other about the show they had just seen, but the battlefield remained relatively quiet.’ The abbey had been literally ruined, not obliterated as Freyberg had required, and was now one vast mountain of rubble with many walls still remaining up to a height of forty or more feet, resembling the ‘dead teeth’ General John K. Cannon of the USAAF wanted to remove; ironically those of the north-west corner (the future target of all ground assaults through the hills) remained intact.

  • These the Germans, sheltering from the smaller bombs, immediately occupied and turned into excellent defensive positions, ready to slaughter the 4th Indian Division when they belatedly attacked.
  • As Brigadier Kippenberger observed: ‘Whatever had been the position before, there was no doubt that the enemy was now entitled to garrison the ruins, the breaches in the fifteen-foot-thick walls were nowhere complete, and we wondered whether we had gained anything.’ Peter Caddick-Adams is a Lecturer in Military and Security Studies at the United Kingdom’s Defence Academy, and author of Monte Cassino: Ten Armies in Hell and Monty and Rommel: Parallel Lives.

He holds the rank of major in the British Territorial Army and has served with U.S. forces in Bosnia, Iraq, and Afghanistan. Subscribe to the OUPblog via email or RSS, Subscribe to only history articles on the OUPblog via email or RSS, Image credits: (1) Source: U.S.

Has Monte Cassino been rebuilt?

1058–1505 –

This section needs additional citations for, Please help by, Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. ( June 2021 ) ( )

of the abbey from the late 15th-century ( 144 ) Monte Cassino was rebuilt and reached the apex of its fame in the 11th century under the abbot Desiderius (abbot 1058–1087), who later became, Monks caring for the patients in Monte Cassino constantly needed new medical knowledge.

  • So they began to buy and collect medical and other books by Greek, Roman, Islamic, Egyptian, European, Jewish, and Oriental authors.
  • As Naples is situated on the crossroad of many seaways of Europe, the Middle East and Asia, soon the monastery library was one of the richest in Europe.
  • All the knowledge of the civilizations of all the times and nations was accumulated in the Abbey of that time.

The Benedictines translated into Latin and transcribed precious manuscripts. The number of monks rose to over two hundred, and the library, the manuscripts produced in the and the school of became famous throughout the West. The unique flourished there during Desiderius’ abbacy.

Monks reading and copying the medical texts learned a lot about human anatomy and methods of treatment, and then put their theoretic skills into practice at monastery hospital. By the 10–11th centuries Monte Cassino became the most famous cultural, educational, and medical center of Europe with a great library in Medicine and other sciences.

Many physicians came there for medical and other knowledge. That is why the first in the world was soon opened in nearby which is considered today to have been the earliest Institution of Higher Education in Western Europe. This school found its original base in the Benedictine Abbey of Monte Cassino still in the 9th century and later settled down in Salerno.

  1. So, Montecassino and Benedictines played a great role in the progress of medicine and science in the Middle Ages, and with his life and work St.
  2. Benedict himself exercised a fundamental influence on the development of European civilization and culture and helped Europe to emerge from the “dark night of history” that followed the fall of the Roman empire.

The buildings of the monastery were reconstructed in the 11th century on a scale of great magnificence, artists being brought from Amalfi, Lombardy, and even to supervise the various works. The abbey church, rebuilt and decorated with the utmost splendor, was consecrated in 1071 by,

  • A detailed account of the abbey at this date exists in the Chronica monasterii Cassinensis by and gives us our best source on the early in the south.
  • The abbey in depicted in ‘s 1703 Il regno di Napoli in prospettiva Abbot Desiderius sent envoys to Constantinople some time after 1066 to hire expert for the decoration of the rebuilt abbey church.

According to chronicler the Greek artists decorated the apse, the arch and the vestibule of the basilica. Their work was admired by contemporaries but was totally destroyed in later centuries except two fragments depicting greyhounds (now in the Monte Cassino Museum).

“The abbot in his wisdom decided that a great number of young monks in the monastery should be thoroughly initiated in these arts” – says the chronicler about the role of the Greeks in the revival of mosaic art in medieval Italy. Architectural historian believed that Desiderius’ rebuilding included pointed arches, and served as a major influence in the nascent development of,

Abbot visited Monte Cassino in 1083, and five years later he began to build the third church at, which then included pointed arches and became a major turning point in medieval architecture. An earthquake damaged the Abbey in 1349, and although the site was rebuilt it marked the beginning of a long period of decline.

How far is Rome from casino?

Rome to Casino di Terra by train

Journey time From 3h 30m
Distance 136 miles (218 km)
Frequency 6 trains per day
First train 09:57
Last train 23:27

How far is Naples from casino?

Questions & Answers – What is the cheapest way to get from Naples to Casino? The cheapest way to get from Naples to Casino is to bus via San Stefano del Sole bivio which costs €5 – €7 and takes 2h 54m. More details What is the fastest way to get from Naples to Casino? The quickest way to get from Naples to Casino is to taxi which costs €75 – €95 and takes 53 min.

More details Is there a direct bus between Naples and Casino? No, there is no direct bus from Naples to Casino. However, there are services departing from NapoIi – Metropark and arriving at San Michele di Serino bivio via Avellino – Via Fratelli Bisogno. The journey, including transfers, takes approximately 2h 6m.

More details What is the distance between Naples and Casino? The distance between Naples and Casino is 50 km. The road distance is 68 km. Get driving directions How do I travel from Naples to Casino without a car? The best way to get from Naples to Casino without a car is to bus which takes 2h 6m and costs €6 – €9.

More details How long does it take to get from Naples to Casino? It takes approximately 2h 6m to get from Naples to Casino, including transfers. More details Where do I catch the Naples to Casino bus from? Naples to Casino bus services, operated by Air Campania S.r.l., depart from NapoIi – Metropark station.

More details Where does the Naples to Casino bus arrive? Naples to Casino bus services, operated by Air Campania S.r.l., arrive at San Michele di Serino bivio station. More details Can I drive from Naples to Casino? Yes, the driving distance between Naples to Casino is 68 km.

What does Monte Casino have?

Johannesburg’s Award Winning Casino – All players are welcome, upon presentation of a valid ID / driver’s licence / passport inline with trace and tracking protocols. The COVID-19 screening questionnaire will still need to be completed at the casino entrance, as per Government regulations.

  1. Johannesburg’s award-winning Montecasino offers visitors a non-smoking and two smoking casinos housing over 1,700 Slot machines and 83 Tables games,
  2. Montecasino’s state-of-the-art Slots can be played in multiple denominations, multi-coin, multi-line machines and a choice of several progressive jackpots.

The Tables games that Montecasino offers, include American Roulette, Dice, Baccarat, Poker and Blackjack, Montecasino also offers the Salon Privé for those seeking a more private experience. From over 1200 machines to choose from A private casino gaming experience American Roulette, Dice, Baccarat, Poker and Blackjack Our Montecasino Rewards Programme aims to reward our members each chance we get. No frills, no fuss – just relevant benefits that you can actually use!

See also:  Situs Slot Yang Bagus Apa?

What does Cassino mean in Italian?

Cassino (countable and uncountable, plural cassinos) Italian card game, see casino. (countable) Any of certain cards with special meanings in this game. (obsolete) A small house in Italy, a secondary home.

How many Poles died at Monte Cassino?

Monte Cassino Polish war cemetery – Wikipedia

This article needs additional citations for, Please help by, Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Find sources: – · · · · ( May 2022 ) ( )

Cemetery in Monte Cassino Monte Cassino Polish war cemetery Polish cemetery, as seen from Monte Cassino monastery Location of cemetery at Monte Cassino DetailsEstablished1944Location Country TypePolish soldiers No. of graves1,072 The Polish war cemetery at holds the graves of 1,072 Poles who died storming the bombed-out abbey atop the mountain in May 1944, during the,

  1. The cemetery is maintained by the Council for the Protection of Memorial Sites of Struggle and Martyrdom.
  2. The religious affiliations of the deceased are indicated by three types of headstone: Christian crosses for and and headstones bearing the,
  3. The cemetery also holds the grave of General, who had commanded the Polish forces that captured Monte Cassino.

Anders died in London in 1970 and his ashes were interred in the cemetery. The cemetery itself can be clearly viewed from the Abbey, which lies just a few hundred meters away. The cemetery is the closest of all allied cemeteries, symbolizing the importance of the Polish fighters during the battle.

What happened in the Battle of Monte Cassino?

The 17th century Benedictine Monte Cassino Monastery was left in ruins but was subsequently rebuilt after WW2 The destruction of the ancient monastery of Monte Cassino came as a surprise to the frontline soldiers who had spent weeks fighting in its imposing shadow.

To everyone else – generals, war correspondents, a party of doctors and nurses who had driven up from Naples to watch the show – it was, as Newsweek reporter John Lardner put it, ‘The most widely advertised bombing in history.’ As wave after wave of Flying Fortresses, Mitchells and Marauders unleashed their deadly payloads on a building that had stood silent watch over the Liri and Rapido valleys for many centuries, many of those watching the bombardment were struck dumb by this awesome display of Allied military might.

As the smoke cleared, one of the most important religious buildings in the Western World had been reduced to a heap of smouldering rubble. How on earth had it come to this? The Battle of Monte Cassino has been described as the hardest-fought battle of World War II.

  • Taking place between the 17th of January and the 18th of May 1944, Monte Cassino was a series of four Allied assaults against the so-called ‘Winter Line’, a series of German and Italian Social Republic fortifications and installations that aimed to protect the route to Rome from Allied invasion.
  • The monastery was one of Italy’s holiest and most important religious sites, housing the remains of St.

Benedict One of the highest concentrations of German troops and artillery was situated in the hills surrounding the town of Cassino on the so-called ‘Gustav Line’. Looming above the town itself was the imposing 14th Century monastery of Monte Cassino.

The monastery was one of Italy’s holiest and most important religious sites, housing the remains of St. Benedict – the founder of the Benedictine monastic order. The monastery was contained within a military exclusion zone which both sides initially respected. The Germans did nothing more than guard the abbey’s imposing front gates.

Some fortifications had been set up further down the mountain’s slopes, but the main bulk of the German defences were kept well away from the exclusion zone. The Allied attempt to smash through the Winter Line quickly became a hellish war of attrition.

Embedded in strongly-fortified positions, the Germans easily held off waves of Allied assaults that quickly exhausted seasoned troops from the British Empire, the Free French and the United States. By the 11th of February, successive Allied attacks had been beaten back, resulting in thousands of casualties.

As time went by, Allied soldiers on the Gustav Line began to view the abbey looming over them with suspicion. The building occupied men’s thoughts like no other. Many grew suspicious that the Germans were occupying the ancient building, using it as an observation post through which they could direct artillery bombardments on Allied positions.

  • As each day of the battle went by and the casualty figures climbed ever upwards, the abbey of Monte Cassino loomed larger in soldiers’ minds.
  • It became a malevolent entity in and of itself.
  • You couldn’t scratch without being seen,’ one soldier recalled of the ‘bloody monastery gazing down at you’.
  • And it was a psychological thing.

It grew the longer you were there.’ The troops’ uneasiness about the monastery soon spread to the top brass. The building might not be occupied now, but who was to say the Germans wouldn’t occupy it at some stage in the future? Talk soon turned to obliterating this irritating obstacle.

‘If you let me use the whole of our bomber force against Cassino,’ said General John Channon, commander of the 15th Army Group Air Force, to Sir Harold Alexander, commander-in-chief of the 15th Army Group, ‘we will whip it out like a dead tooth.’ The decision was finally taken to destroy the monastery, which was now widely viewed as a legitimate target after spotter planes had wrongly identified what they thought was a radio mast on the abbey’s roof and German uniforms hanging from a washing line in the courtyard.

The bombardment would take place on the 13th of February, though this was changed to the 15th when severe snowstorms in the Cassino area made flight impossible. Its once beautiful central courtyard had been turned into a bomb crater On the morning of the 14th, the artillery fired shells filled with leaflets over the skies above the monastery, warning of the coming bombardment.

The leaflets were dismissed as propaganda by a visiting German officer when the abbot showed him one. As a result, no serious thought was given to evacuating the abbey’s community of monks, nor the couple of hundred refugees who had sought sanctuary within its walls until it was too late. Some would find shelter in the catacombs and caves beneath the monastery as the bombs rained down on them.

Others would not be so lucky. The following day, waves of American bombers filled the skies. First, 142 B-17 Flying Fortresses of the 13th Strategic Air Force stationed at nearby Foggia pounded the monastery’s ancient walls, cloisters and courtyards with 253 tons of incendiaries and high explosives.

  • Next swooped in 47 B-25 Mitchells and 40 B-26 Marauders of the Mediterranean Air Force, dropping a further 100 tons of explosives.
  • As each wave finished its deadly run, the men and guns of the US II Corps artillery division bombarded the monastery and surrounding hilltop with shells, causing further damage to the crumbling building, leaving the top of the mountain a pitted and scarred mess of craters and smoking ruins.

After the onslaught, cheers rang up among the soldiery as the smoke revealed a site of total devastation. The monastery was unrecognisable. Its once beautiful central courtyard had been turned into a bomb crater; its ancient basilica with its collection of priceless frescoes, irreplaceable choir and magnificent organ was now a heap of smouldering rubble; its peaceful cloisters and beautiful sacristy containing exquisite carvings and stunning murals had both been pummeled into dust.

  1. Worst of all, many of those who had sought refuge in the monastery had been killed during the bombardment.
  2. A total of 230 Italian civilians had lost their lives.
  3. While the soldiers fighting on the Gustav Line may have cheered the abbey’s destruction, many others were horrified.
  4. One described the destruction of Monte Cassino as being akin to the Italian Air Force bombing Westminster Abbey.

Harold Tittman, the senior diplomat to the Vatican in Rome, couldn’t hide his fury, calling the bombing a ‘colossal blunder’ and ‘a piece of gross stupidity’. For those who had grown up in the shadow of the monastery, the destruction of this beloved local landmark was beyond belief.

  • Tony Pittaccio, a young man who lived nearby, summed up the thoughts of many locals: ‘As for Monte Cassino, whereas the military may have felt spying enemy eyes looking down on them, we felt that benevolent eyes were looking down on us.
  • The monastery was to us the assurance that goodness would triumph over evil and the promise that it would never be destroyed meant that life would continue.

We said our daily prayer with our eyes turned towards the monastery. It was a source of great comfort. When it was bombed, we just could not believe what we were seeing. A part of all of us, and especially me and my family because of what it had meant to us, died with it.

  1. Nothing was sacred any more and the world had truly become a darkened place.’ The British and Indian assault that followed the monastery’s destruction was an abject failure, with the Allies suffering a fifty percent casualty rate.
  2. Worst of all, the very thing the bombardment of Monte Cassino was meant to prevent – the occupation of the abbey by German troops – was exactly what happened next.

The Allies had inadvertently created a considerable obstacle for themselves by reducing the monastery to rubble, and German paratroopers quickly moved into the ruins and set up defensive positions that would cost many Allied lives before they were finally driven out of the ruins.

It later emerged that the Germans had formally agreed with the church not to occupy the ancient structure. It was an agreement they felt they no longer had to abide by following the bombing, and they were quick to take advantage of the fortress the Allies had helpfully provided for them. The Battle of Monte Cassino would grind on for another three months.

The Allies would eventually emerge triumphantly, but at a cost of 55,000 casualties compared to the Germans’ 20,000. The road to Rome was finally open. The city would fall on the 5th of June 1944. After the war, it was quickly decided that the monastery would be reconstructed in its entirety.

Work began in the 1950s, with the rubble being carefully sifted and catalogued so that as much of the original fabric of the building could be incorporated into the reconstruction. It would finally be reconsecrated by Pope Paul VI in 1964. Today, high on its hill in the beautiful surroundings of the Latin Valley, it is easy to forget that, just seventy-five years ago, the great abbey of Monte Cassino was a hulking ruin.

The abbey’s senseless destruction was a blow against civilization that reverberated around the world. Its smouldering ruins a testimony to the folly of war.